How did the federalists win ratification of the Constitution?

It took two and one-half years for the 13 colonies to ratify the Constitution.

This fundamental law was «establish[ed] and ordain[ed]» by the people of the United States according to the preamble of the constitution; it thus follows that the people are sovereign....

This action, a compromise engineered by Federalist members, disposed of the argument that the convention had exceeded its mandate; in the tacit opinion of Congress, the Constitution was validly before the people.

In the last article, we examined the methods of popular dissent in the American colonies with the case studies of the North Carolina Regulation and the New Hampshire Grants. Popular dissent in the American colonies during the 18th century was expressed in several ways from passive resistance to riot. At times groups organized as Regulation movements that included citizens from several different social classes who shared a common goal to end the overreach or corruption in local government. These Regulators usually perceived the courts and magistrates as part of the problem and argued that traditional avenues of legal redress were unavailable or blatantly biased against them. Regulators often first organized to generate group petitions. But if government officials failed to respond the Regulators compelled those officials to listen through disruptions such as organized demonstrations and shutting down the courts. These actions were often accomplished by utilizing the organization of local militia groups. But this use of the militia structure and militiamen made Regulation movements often appear more like armed insurrections; instead of regulating government critics argued Regulators were threatening its very stability. Throughout this process, Regulators struggled to maintain popular legitimacy for their extralegal actions. But escalations in violence and the use of arms often undermined public support and eliminated any leniency or consideration by officials. After this type of escalation the North Carolina Regulation was crushed. Conversely, the settlers of the New Hampshire Grants, led by leaders like Ethan Allen, gained a new foothold by legitimizing their cause under the popular rhetoric that inspired the American Revolution.

The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of America in 1803.

Ten years before the Constitutional Convention, Washington’s presidency, or the three branches of government; the Articles of Confederation were created.

Several debated over the ratification of the U.S.

Though American history has experienced many developments over the years, it is the firm belief of the author that these five developments were instrumental in propelling thirteen loosely associated colonies into the path of what would develop into the United States of America....

[tags: ratification of the constitution]

This amendment finalized the abolition of slave trade in the United States.

There are many things required to reach a status of Statesman including: Pursuit of the public good, Practical wisdom, political skills, opportunity, and good fortune.

Constitution Ratification Debates

But the Boston elite and government denounced both the Regulation and their use of the militia as rebellion and anarchy. Those who opposed the Regulation promoted the idea of a “commonwealth” government that placed public interests over private ones. For example, the stabilization of the state economy and the reestablishment of good credit nationally and internationally outweighed the immediate needs of farmers who wanted to renege on their debts. Political leaders were especially disturbed by the passive action of militia who, even if they did not participate in the rebellion, refused to muster to stop the "banditti" who threatened government. The Militia Act aimed to correct this behavior by threatening a range of punishments from a court martial for militiamen who refused to muster to the death penalty for officers who actively participated in the rebellion. But beyond the debates over the appropriate role of the militia, critics also questioned the validity of regulation. They argued shutting down the courts was extralegal and had no place in a government that offered political representation. Once citizens had voted, they should trust their elected officials, obey their laws, and only express their dissent through the electoral process and the courts rather than through mob violence.

Who wrote several of the persuasive essays known as the federalist papers to gain support for ratification of the constitution essays known as the federalists.

The mounting debt in the rural counties was compounded by new taxes and limits on acceptable legal tender. Additionally, the new state constitution had provided the state legislature in Boston more control over the western counties than before. Finally, the decision to pay state notes at full value after most of them had been gobbled up by speculators appeared corrupt to many. For many in the western counties high taxes, lack of representation, and political corruption all appeared to be the same problems that the Revolution had sought to eliminate. For some it was time for a Regulation to check government with the hopes to finish the course of the Revolution which had somehow lost its bearings in Massachusetts.

Perfect for students who have to write The Constitution (1781–1815) essays

The Massachusetts Regulators felt that they were both following the tradition of regulation and carrying forward the ideals of the American Revolution. For many in the western counties the legislature had failed the "protection covenant" wherein the government was supposed to look after the welfare of its citizens and not let them fall prey to a minority (the elite) or be forced into "economic inequality." Their petitions had gone unanswered and the only way to protect their communities was to shut down the courts as had been done during past regulations and patriotic protests against Britain. The Regulators relied on the local militias to organize and provide legitimacy to these actions. As seen in of this series, the militias had taken on larger roles in popular dissent in the colonies during the 18th century. The recent experience of the American Revolution further promoted the militia as the modus operandi. Locals did not view the militia as a "creature of the state" but thought they expressed local sentiments and, when incited to action, became the embodiment of "the body of the people." Indeed, the latter idea was part of the common rhetoric of the day and even Baron von Steuben questioned if the Massachusetts government had turned into an oligarchy since it had stirred up both active and passive resistance from its own militiamen.

To become part of the Constitution today, ratification by an …

The biggest objection that pitted the Boston elite against the rural farmers was the favoritism for speculators that fueled accusations of corruption. In an attempt to pay off debts and reestablish confidence in the state economy, the Massachusetts legislature agreed to pay state notes at full value. These notes had been used to raise funds for the war and pay soldiers but had devalued to such an extent that many, especially war veterans, had sold their notes for a fraction of the cost to speculators. In part they had sold the devalued notes to pay bills but also because the state had refused to accept them for tax payments which seemed to eliminate any chance of them regaining value. By the time the state agreed to honor the notes at full value, most were owned by speculators and as many as 80% of the notes were held by the elite of Boston. The legislature raised taxes to collect the funds to pay off the notes. A poll tax and property tax increased taxes so that they were higher than before the Revolutionary War. To compound this accumulation of questionable decisions, the state only allowed hard currency, or specie, for taxes and refused to accept alternative forms of payment. Other states facing similar economic challenges offered alternatives such as allowing the use of paper money or capping the devaluation of notes and making creditors accept them as payment. But the Massachusetts legislature refused to consider these options even when petitions from the western counties argued that there simply was not enough legal tender in circulation to meet the demand.