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In the historical period, when technologically advanced humans encountered less advanced ones, there was cultural and genetic interchange, but in the end, the technologically advanced peoples . If any place on Earth could have been used as an illustration of the climate change hypothesis for the megafauna extinctions, ice age Europe would have been it. Ice sheets extended so far southward that Neanderthals lived in relatively few refugia, but I highly doubt that it caused their extinction. Neanderthals lived for at least 300,000 years and survived radical climate changes just fine. Human-agency skeptics have invoked unusually violent climate changes that coincidentally appeared when behaviorally advanced humans arrived around the world, but that seems to be grasping at straws. Again, there is nothing climatically unique about the past 60,000 years, , so invoking climate-change effects for humans and animals that weathered the ice age’s vagaries just fine seems to be a huge conjecture that may be politically motivated. Human-agency skeptics have crafted different kinds of climate explanations for each major extinction, such as drying in Australia, getting colder and dryer in Europe, or getting when most of the extinctions happened. At , climate was a proximate cause, not the ultimate one. The ultimate one was people virtually every time.
As will become a familiar theme in this essay, the rise and fall of species and ecosystems is always primarily an energy issue. The Ediacaran extinction is a good example: Ediacaran fauna either an energy source for early Cambrian predators, ran out of food energy, ran out of the oxygen necessary to power their metabolisms, or lacked some other energy-delivered nutrient. After the extinction events, biomes were often cleared for new species to dominate, which were often descended from species that were marginal ecosystem members before the extinction event. They then enjoyed a of relative energy abundance as their competitors were removed via the extinction event.
Readers for the collective task that I have in mind need to become familiar with the scientific process, partly so they can develop a critical eye for the kinds of arguments and evidence that attend the pursuit of FE and other fringe science/technology efforts. For the remainder of this essay, I will attempt to refrain from referring to too many scientific papers and getting into too many details of the controversies. Following my references will help readers who want to go deeply into the issues, and many of them are as deep and controversial as the Snowball Earth hypothesis and aftermath has proven to be, or attempts to explain the . These are relatively new areas of scientific investigation, partly due to an improved scientific toolset and ingenious ways to use them. It is very possible that the controversies in those areas will diminish within the next generation as new hypotheses account for increasingly sophisticated data, and in the near future are nearly certain. But science is always subject to becoming dogmatic and hypotheses can prevail for reasons of wealth, power, rhetorical skill, and the like, not because they are valid. The history of science is plagued with that phenomenon, and probably will be as long as humanity lives in the era of scarcity.
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1 and 3 sound pretty good, but I’m not so sure 2 is entirely true; the nuclear energy industry requires a lot of Government (taxpayer) subsidies in order to stay cost-competitive against fossil fuel energy. Nuclear is highly regulated and there’s a lot of extra costs put into its many layers of redundant safety systems that if not for Government funds, would make it very expensive.
Should every country have the right to possess nuclear weapons?
In the high energy demanding world of ours, nuclear power plants may be the best option for energy production in the countries like United States, Japan, and France.
Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons - Energy Informative
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Sumerian city-states engaged in irrigation, which raised the water-tables. When the water table in those waterlogged soils reached the surface, the soils turned white with salt, especially with the high evaporation of those hot lands, and it would no longer support crops. The only solution was to stop irrigating and let the land go fallow as the water table fell, but the population pressures did not allow for it, so the process inexorably created saline soils, silt-filled canals due to upland deforestation, and today those Sumerian cities are all buried in silt in a desert. Eridu was a seashore city, and today its ruins lie more than 200 kilometers inland. But before silt and salt wrecked that civilization, many seminal inventions appeared. The appeared in . Gravity took a ship downstream, and wind power helped it move back upstream.
Essay on Nuclear Energy | We've moved
Early elites claimed divine status, and the priesthood abetted the fiction, and a universal practice among early civilizations was erecting monumental architecture. The was the first such structure. Anthropologists think that monumental architecture may be a form of societal/elite , so that a society can flaunt the resources used to make such overawing showings, both to encourage submission to the society's obvious wealth and power, and to also discourage attempts to compete with it. In Sumer, ziggurats were not only the center of the , but also held precious metals such as gold. The priesthood directed mass economic activity, such as organizing irrigation projects. In some ways, the priesthood was only adapting to urbanization. Their professional ancestors developed calendars and other methods of synchronizing vital activities such as plantings and harvests, with their attendant festivals; mistimings by mere days could lead to famine. Sumerian temples had statues in their central place of worship, in human form, bedecked with jewels and other precious adornments. Offerings of food were presented to the statues, which temple personnel ate that night. In the third millennium BCE, temples owned land and had their own workforce, which was again a “voluntary” one that discharged religious obligations. Although those temples performed valuable societal functions such as taking in orphans, the earliest urban religions were obviously businesses and could become rackets, in a pattern that continues to this day.