Finally, progressivism took shape when political parties retainedthe ability to forge creative alliances despite their decliningpower. The "progressive era" began serendipitously when T.R. replacedthe assassinated William McKinley. Progressives succeeded nationallywhen a split in the Republican Party in 1912 allowed progressives tocommandeer the Democratic Party for two terms. Parties today are lesssuccessful in defining issues and forging compromises. The 19th"state" of parties and courts has yielded to one of federal agenciesand presidential power, with only sporadic judicial intervention. Theright to abortion and affirmative action, two of the mostcontroversial issues of the day, are kept alive, not by legislativeaction but largely by government bureaucrats and the courts, neitherdirectly elected. Leadership is provided , not by Congress, but bycharismatic presidents (the only two term presidents in forty yearshave been Reagan and Clinton, both charmers). The "public opinion"that once energized a T.R. or Wilson is today the poll that breedscaution and the spin. When T.R. assumed the presidency one observermoaned that that "damn cowboy" was now president, although T.R. andthe Republicans went on to surprise the nation. Something similar mayhappen after this next election. But with the "populism lite" of aBryan wannabe versus the faux diversity of a modern day Ivy Leaguecowboy, I wouldn't hold mybreath.
This aspect of the election of 1912 -- that is, the contest within the Republican Party between Taft and Roosevelt about preserving the Constitution -- is almost entirely forgotten today. Shelves and shelves of dissertations and books have been done on Progressivism and socialism in that election, but virtually nothing about conservatism. As we try to recover an understanding of the Founders' Constitution, so also conservatives need to recover our own history, which has otherwise been completely ignored by the Progressive academy.
Had Roosevelt managed to win the nomination of his party as he came close to doing, it is likely that it would have put its weight behind these reforms and others that appeared later in the platform of the Progressive Party, including, critically, a more expeditious method of amending the Constitution. That would probably have meant amendment by a majority of the popular vote in a majority of the states, as Robert LaFollette suggested. Had that happened -- had the Constitution come down to us today amended and re-amended, burdened with all the quick fixes and gimmicks that, at one point or another over the 20th century, captured fleeting majorities -- the effort to recover the Founders' constitutionalism and reorient American politics toward it would obviously have been a much, much trickier proposition.
Unless such policies are accompanied by rigorous processes of progressively scaled revenue collection, over time they will feed, and exacerbate, growing inequality as the lead to what as "condensation, i.e. concentration of all available wealth in just one or a few agents". This is why redistribution is key to community welfare.
Progressive agendas of roosevelt essay - The Official Home
Those arguing for ignoring distribution and focusing only on growth often claim (at least implicitly) that progressive redistribution and growth conflict, and that strategies aimed explicitly at progressively redistributing income will hamstring overall growth. In fact, recent economic history in the U.S. strongly indicates that it is regressive redistribution and growth that are in conflict; the package of policy changes that led to the rise in inequality did nothing to boost overall growth of the economy. Instead, as inequality rose, overall growth rates fell. In short, equity and efficiency are often not in conflict. And an ambitious agenda that restores economic power to the vast majority can make the economy grow both fairer and faster.
(Josh Bivens, , Economic Policy Institute, Report 107762, June 9, 2016)
Progressive agendas of theodore roosevelt and + woodrow wils
It was in this way that Wilson believed the original intention of the separation of powers system could be circumvented, and the enhanced presidency could be a means energizing the kind of active national government that the progressive agenda required.
SparkNotes: Woodrow Wilson: Early Foreign Policy: …
Private property rights, which had been serving as a brake on the more aggressive progressive policy proposals, were to be respected, Roosevelt argued, only insofar as the government approved of the property’s social usefulness. He wrote:
that part of the Declaration which talks about securing individual natural rights as the only legitimate purpose of government. And Theodore Roosevelt, when using the federal government to take over private businesses during the 1902 coal strike, is reported to have remarked, “To hell with the Constitution when people want coal!” This remark may be apocryphal, but it is a fair representation of how TR viewed these matters. In the next piece, we’ll consider how the presidency was transformed under men like Wilson and TR. For more on the Progressives, two of my books may be of interest:The Dust Bowl:
portrays the grim conditions at the 100th meridian and the Roosevelt responses (). is the Library of Congress' American Memory contribution.
New Deal Cultural Programs:
by Don Adams and Arlene Goldbard (1986, 1995) explains the brief flourishing of these programs and their ultimate demise and replacement by World War II promotional agendas.Beginning in 1900, however, with the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, for the first time in American political history the entire domestic economic and social foundation of America was being questioned. And it was our first progressive president, the Republican Theodore Roosevelt, who shepherded this shift because of his belief that the president was "the steward of the public welfare."There are, of course, many different representations of Progressivism: the literature of Upton Sinclair, the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright, the history of Charles Beard, the educational system of John Dewey. In politics and political thought, the movement is associated with political leaders such as Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt and thinkers such as Herbert Croly and Charles Merriam.Supreme Court Packing:
The famous 1937 presidential attempt to transform the Supreme Court is the object of a NARA 'Teaching With Documents' lesson at. A good academic coverage on this event is from K.C. Johnson of Brooklyn College.
New Deal and Wartime Taxation Policy:
Joseph J. Thorndike of the Tax History Project has written a series of articles on taxation before, during and after the Roosevelt years. lists them all.
by Thorndike persuasively argues that the New Deal tax regime of high excise taxes and a progressive income tax was essentially based on the 1932 Revenue Act passed in the last Hoover year rather than by a Roosevelt-era legislature. The article is less persuasive in seeking to have the 1932 enactment derive from the numerous tax-reduction enactments of the Republican 1920s.
Thorndike also offers under the article title of "The Price of Civilization: Taxation in Depression and War, 1933-1945." This shows that FDR led successful efforts to broaden the federal income tax, steepen its progressivity, and use regressive federal excise taxes extensively through the 1930s.
In the war 1940s, under article title " Morgenthau's Morning Glory' -- The Progressive Spendings Tax Proposal" shows the 1942 broadening of the income tax. Meanwhile, Roosevelt led the successful opposition to adoption in the early war years of a national sales or "value-added" tax: under title "The Tax That Wasn't: Mid-Century Proposals For A National Sales Tax." But another request in 1943 to add revenue and apply a very steep progressive tax to estates fell into deep disfavor with the increasingly conservative Congress: .
World War II:
is a general source. timeline has links to major events from Pearl Harbor to the war's aftermath. includes a .
PBS has .
A lengthy trove of primary is from the at Mt. Holyoke College. is a comparable source with more editing for the most important items.
The Roosevelt Library has public domain.
cover the major war conferences from the Atlantic Conference in August 1941 to the post-Roosevelt Potsdam Conference attended by Truman in July 1945.
WWII articles from are at.
Foreign and diplomatic War policy of Roosevelt:
For primary documents, see And there is From the Library, see the once-secret Safe Files, introduced at with links to six of the boxes. These are largely WWII and national security items listed alphabetically by correspondent or nation. A source for transcripts of the major conferences is itemized in.